Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to the recipient after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation. When the stem cells come from another person, it is called an allogeneic transplant. The donor may be a relative or a complete stranger. The important thing is that the donor's immune system markers are closely matched to yours. This is more likely when the donor is your brother or sister.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used to cure some patients who:
are at high risk of relapse
don't respond fully to treatment
relapse after prior successful treatment
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be a high-risk procedure. The high-conditioning regimens are meant to severely or completely impair your ability to make stem cells. You may experience side effects during the days you receive high-dose conditioning radiation or chemotherapy. Specifically, high-conditioning therapy’s goals are to:
treat the remaining cancer cells intensively to make a cancer recurrence less likely
inactivate the immune system to reduce the chance of stem cell graft rejection
enable donor cells to travel to the marrow (engraftment), produce blood cells and bring about graft versus tumor effect
Autologus stem cell treatment invloves one individual as both donor and recipient [an autologous blood transfusion]. A low risk procedure.
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