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Cancer Cell of Origin:
   Precancerous cell that gives rise to a cancer stem cell. May be a mutated stem cell, or a progenitor cell that has acquired self-renewal capacity through mutation.
Cancer Stem Cell:
   Self-renewing cell responsible for sustaining a cancer and for producing differentiated progeny that form the bulk of the cancer. Cancer stem cells identified in leukaemias and certain solid tumours are critical therapeutic targets. See also: Cancer: a disease of stem cells
Cancer-initiating Cell:
   Cell that can produce a new cancer upon transplantation. A key property of a cancer stem cell.
Cell-Based Therapies:
   Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues.
Cell Culture:
   Growth of cells in vitro in an artificial medium for research or medical treatment.
Cell Division:
   Method by which a single cell divides to create two cells. There are two main types of cell division depending on what happens to the chromosomes: mitosis and meiosis.
Cell Type:
   A specific subset of cells within the body, defined by their appearance, location and function.
Cerebellum:
   The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control.
Chondrocytes:
   The only cells found in healthy cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans. Although chondroblast is still commonly used to describe an immature chondrocyte, use of the term is discouraged, for it is technically inaccurate since the progenitor of chondrocytes (which are mesenchymal stem cells) can also differentiate into several cell types including osteoblasts. The organization of chondrocytes within cartilage differs depending upon the type of cartilage and where in the tissue they are found.
Chromosome:
   A structure consisting of DNA and regulatory proteins found in the nucleus of the cell. The DNA in the nucleus is usually divided up among several chromosomes.The number of chromosomes in the nucleus varies depending on the species of the organism. Humans have 46 chromosomes.
Clone:
   To generate identical copies of a region of a DNA molecule or to generate genetically identical copies of a cell, or organism; (n)The identical molecule, cell, or organism that results from the cloning process.
Cloning:
   In biology, the process in which an organism produces one or more genetically identical copies of itself by asexual means.
Collagen:
   A group of naturally occurring proteins found in animals, especially in the flesh and connective tissues of vertebrates. It is the main component of connective tissue, and is the most abundant protein in mammals.
Cord Blood Stem Cells:
   See Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells.
Crisper:
   The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR spacers recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacteria genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea.
Culture Medium:
   The liquid that covers cells in a culture dish and contains nutrients to nourish and support the cells. Culture medium may also include growth factors added to produce desired changes in the cells.
Cytokine:
   Cytokines are a diverse group of soluble proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins which act as hormonal regulators or signaling molecules at nano- to- picomolar concentrations and help in cell signaling. The term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.ture medium may also include growth factors added to produce desired changes in the cells.

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