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Daughter Cell:
One of the two or more cells formed in the division of a single cell.

Diabetes:
Facts and encouraging research.

Differentiation:
The process whereby an unspecialized embryonic cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. Differentiation is controlled by the interaction of a cell’s genes with the physical and chemical conditions outside the cell, usually through signaling pathways involving proteins embedded in the cell surface.

Diploblastic:
Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

Directed Differentiation:
The manipulation of stem cell culture conditions to induce differentiation into a particular cell type.

Diploid:
A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n. An example of a cell in a diploid state is a somatic cell. In humans, the somatic cells typically contain 46 chromosomes in contrast to human haploid gametes (egg and sperm cells) that have only 23 chromosomes.

DNA:
Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical found primarily in the nucleus of cells. DNA carries the instructions or blueprint for making all the structures and materials the body needs to function. DNA consists of both genes and non-gene DNA in between the genes.

Down Syndrome:
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes lifelong mental retardation, developmental delays and other problems. Down syndrome varies in severity, so developmental problems range from moderate to serious.

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