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Macrophage[mak-ruh-feyj] :
A type of white blood cell and a versatile part of the immune system. Constantly on patrol, macrophages can find and kill many different kinds of bacteria. They are usually the first responders to any invasion of the body.

Meiosis[mahy-oh-sis]
The type of cell division a diploid germ cell undergoes to produce gametes (sperm or eggs) that will carry half the normal chromosome number. This is to ensure that when fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg will carry the normal number of chromosomes rather than causing aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes).

Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Cells from the immature embryonic connective tissue. A number of cell types come from mesenchymal stem cells, including chondrocytes, which produce cartilage.

Mesoderm:
Middle layer of a group of cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; it gives rise to bone, muscle, connective tissue, kidneys, and related structures.

Microenvironment:
The molecules and compounds such as nutrients and growth factors in the fluid surrounding a cell in an organism or in the laboratory, which play an important role in determining the characteristics of the cell.

Mitosis:
The type of cell division that allows a population of cells to increase its numbers or to maintain its numbers. The number of chromosomes remains the same in this type of cell division.

Mosaicism [moh-zey-uh-siz-uh m]
With mosaic trisomy 21, the error or misdivision occur s after fertilization at some point during early cell division. Because of this, people with mosaic Down syndrome have two cell lines... one with the normal number of chromosomes, and one with an extra number 21.

Multipotent Stem Cells Stem cells whose progeny are of multiple differentiated cell types, but all within a particular tissue, organ, or physiological system. For example, blood-forming (hematopoietic) stem cells are single multipotent cells that can produce all cell types that are normal components of the blood. Also see pluripotent and totipotent

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