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Oct4:
Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. Oct4 is a homeodomain transcription factor of the POU family. This protein is critically involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. As such, it is frequently used as a marker for undifferentiated cells. Oct-4 expression must be closely regulated; too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells.

Oligodendrocyte:
A supporting cell that provides insulation to nerve cells by forming a myelin sheath (a fatty layer) around axons.

Oligopotent Progenitor Cells:
Progenitor cells that can produce more than one type of mature cell. An example is the myeloid progenitor cell which can give rise to mature blood cells, including blood granulocytes, monocytes, red blood cells, platelets, basophiles, eosinophiles and dendritic cells, but not T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, or natural killer cells.

Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis):
Is the origin and the development of an organism: for example, from the fertilized egg to mature form. In time frame, it can cover the study of an organism's lifespan.

Organoids:
Organpoids, lab-grown miniature versions of organs, are transforming science and medicine. Researchers have grown them from many different organs; they have also created organoids from tumor ceils to mimic cancers.

Osteoblast:
Osteoblasts are specialized, terminally differentiated products of mesenchymal stem cells. They synthesize very dense, crosslinked collagen, and several additional specialized proteins in much smaller quantities, including osteocalcin and osteopontin, which comprise the organic matrix of bone. In organized groups of connected cells they produce calcium and phosphate-based mineral which is deposited, in a highly regulated manner, into the organic matrix forming a very strong and dense mineralized tissue - the mineralized matrix.

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