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Regenerative Medicine:
a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the “process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function”. This field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs via stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms to functionally heal previously irreparable tissues or organs.

Reproductive Cloning:
The transfer into the uterus of an embryo derived by nuclear transfer with the intent to establish a pregnancy. Off-spring would be genetically identical to the donor of the transferred nucleus. A range of animals have been generated by reproductive cloning, notably Dolly the sheep. The ISSCR does not support reproductive cloning for humans.

Reprogramming:
Increase in potency. Occurs naturally in regenerative organisms (dedifferentiation). Induced experimentally in mammalian cells by nuclear transfer, cell fusion, genetic manipulation or in vitro culture

RNA:
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

Robertsonian Translocation:
Robertsonian translocation (ROB) is a rare form of chromosomal rearrangement that in humans occurs in the five acrocentric chromosome pairs, namely 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

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