Therapeutic Cloning:
The generation of embryonic stem cells from an embryo derived by nuclear transfer for therapeutic purposes. The resultant cell line would be genetically identical to the donor of the transferred nucleus. In humans, the therapeutic potential includes research using patient- or disease-specific human embryonic stem cells to study the basis of disease or advance towards tissue replacement.

Totipotent Stem Cells
Stem cells that can give rise to all cell types that are found in an embryo, fetus, or developed organism, including the embryonic components of the trophoblast and placenta required to support development and birth. The zygote and the cells at the very early stages following fertilization (i.e., the 2-cell stage) are considered totipotent.

The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non­coding RNA transcribed in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

The ability of a particular cell of one tissue, organ or system, including stem or progenitor cells, to differentiate into a cell type characteristic of another tissue, organ, or system; e.g., blood stem cells changing to liver cells.

Transplantation Biology:
The science that studies the transplantation of organs and cells. Transplantation biologists investigate scientific questions to understand why foreign tissues and organs are rejected, the way transplanted organs function in the recipient, how this function can be maintained or improved, and how the organ to be transplanted should be handled to obtain optimal results.

two ureteral orifices, connected by a ridge of tissue, and the urethral orifice form the corners of a triangle (bladder trigone).

trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.  A trisomy is a type of aneuploidy (ān'yə-ploi'dē) (an abnormal number of chromosomes)

The outer cell layer of the blastocyst. It is responsible for implantation and develops into the extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta, and controls the exchange of oxygen and metabolites between mother and embryo.

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